Functional traits

Health traits

Udder health index describes genetic ability to resist mastitis. The information is based on records on clinical mastitis made by veterinarians in the first three lactations. Cell count and some udder conformation traits are used as indicator traits when calculating the udder health index. Breeding values for these indicator traits are also published.

Index for general health describes genetic potential to resist reproductive, metabolic and feet and leg diseases. Index is based on veterinarians’ treatments in the first three lactations.

Claw health index describes genetic ability to resist claw diseases. Index is based on records from claw trimmers from first three lactations. Records on seven different claw diseases are used in the calculation.

Udder health, other diseases and claw health indices are all included in NTM.

Read more:

Read more about breeding value calculations in the document NAV routine genetic evaluation of dairy cattle – data and genetic models.

Fertility

Fertility index describes genetic potential to start or resume heat cycle after calving, to show estrous and to conceive at insemination. The higher the breeding value the better the fertility. The fertility index includes breeding values for interval from first to last insemination (heifers and cows), interval from calving to first insemination (cows) and number of inseminations (heifers and cows).

Fertility index is included in NTM. In addition breeding values for non-return rate (heifers and cows) and heat strength (heifers and cows) are published.

Read more:

Read more about breeding value calculations on the document NAV routine genetic evaluation of dairy cattle – data and genetic models.

Calving traits

Birth index describes bull’s offspring’s genetic potential to be born easily and alive. It includes breeding values for calf’s ability to be born alive (direct) and calf’s ability to be born easily (direct) based on calving records from first five lactations.

Calving index describes offspring’s genetic potential for easy calvings and live-born calves. It includes breeding values for cow’s ability to give birth to a live calf (maternal) and cows’ ability to have an easy calving (maternal) based on calving records from first five lactations.

Both birth and calving indices are included in NTM.

Read more about breeding value calculations on the document NAV routine genetic evaluation of dairy cattle – data and genetic models.

Longevity

Longevity describes genetic potential for a cow to have a long productive life. The longevity index is based on the breeding value for days from first calving to the end of third lactation. Breeding values for other time periods are used as indicator traits in the calculation.

The information comes from milk recording. Longevity index is included in NTM.

Young stock survival describes heifer calves survival to 15 months age and bull calves survival to 6 months age.

Read more:

Read more about breeding value calculations on the document NAV routine genetic evaluation of dairy cattle – data and genetic models.

Milkability

Milkability describes genetic potential for milking speed. The index is based on herd owners assessment on cows milkability. Also information from electronic milk recording from AMS and milk parlours is included. If available, the electronic data is used instead of the herd owner’s assessment

Milkability index is included in NTM. In addition a breeding value for leakage is published.

Read more:

Read more about breeding value calculations on the document NAV routine genetic evaluation of dairy cattle – data and genetic models.

Temperament

Temperament describes genetic potential for temperament. The index is based on herd owner’s assessment of the individual cow’s temperament compared to other cows in the same herd. Breeding value is included in NTM.

Read more about breeding value calculations on the document NAV routine genetic evaluation of dairy cattle – data and genetic models.