For conformation the linear traits are combined to indices for frame, feet & legs and udder. Breeding values for combined traits are published as well as breeding values for underlying traits. Data for conformation traits comes from classification records made by official classifiers.


Frame index describes genetic potential for frame conformation. Higher breeding values indicates larger cows for all breeds.

Feet & Legs

Feet & Legs index describes genetic potential for feet and leg conformation. Higher breeding values indicates better feet and leg conformation for all breeds.


Udder index describes genetic potential for udder conformation. Higher breeding values indicates better udder conformation for all breeds.

More info:

Conformation optimums and weights as well as description of conformation recording (Conformation recording of dairy cattle (ICAR)) are found as links on the right.

Improved NAV breeding values for conformation

Read more about breeding value calculations on the document NAV routine genetic evaluation of dairy cattle – data and genetic models.